Wednesday, December 25, 2019
CSR Provision- Section 135. According to it, Ã¢â¬Å"Every company with a net worth of Rs. 500 crore or more, or turnover of Rs. 1,000 crore or more, or net profit of Rs. 5 crore or more in a financial year will have to form a corporate social responsibility (CSR) Committee of the Board consisting of three or more directors, out of which at least one director must be an independent director Also, as per the Act appointed Board to ensure spending in every financial year of at least two percent of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s net profits during three immediate financial years in pursuit of their CSR Policy. But in the case if the company has inadequate profits or it is not possible for the company to at least spend prescribed amount on CSR the Board of Directors are to give viable justification in their annual report, failing to which will be non-compliance. Interestingly there are no penalties as per Companies Act, 2013 for failing to spend on CSR but the Company will be penalized on failing to report their inability to spend on CSR. Hence the Rule is Either Do It or Speak It. Schedule VII covers a wide range of activities which can be undertaken by the Companies as a part of their CSR initiatives. CSR Objectives after its inclusion in the Companies Act The prime objective of the government in enacting CSR activities in legislation was to guide the Indian corporate sector to synergize the Corporate, Governments, Civil Society Organizations, Academic Institutions and SocialShow MoreRelatedCorporate Social Responsibility And Csr1566 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSocial responsibility or also called Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)- is the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s engagement (voluntarily initiated) in and its compliance (legally mandated) to environmental, social, and governance issues (The Foundation, 2014). Also, is based on stakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s needs being financially sustainable, and CSR can come from both corporate or not-to-profit organizations. CSR has seven categories; Leadership, vision and values; Marketplace activities; Workforce activities; Supply chain activities;Read MoreCorporate Social Responsibility : Csr1232 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCorporate social responsibility has become a buzzword within the industry in the last few years. Follow ing the financial market crash investors and stakeholders began looking at corporations to act more socially responsible. The meaning of social responsibility differs across regions. 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In general, corporate social responsibility is the policies and programs of business corporations which tend to benefit society while improving a corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s public image and profitability at the same time. The meaning of it is implemented in different countries and companies differently. Warren Buffet said that it takes 20 years to build a reputation and onlyRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility ( Csr )863 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestechnology in the last century. The term of Corporate Social Responsibility appears more often into publicÃ¢â¬â¢s concerned and it has become a hot issue in recent years. This essay is going to discuss and provide an overview of corporate social responsibility (CSR) by debate some key issue in this area. 1.2 What is Corporate Social Responsibility? In 1953, BowenÃ¢â¬â¢s Social Responsibility of the Businessman firstly discusses the idea of corporate social responsibility. He states the relationship between societyRead MoreCsr : Corporate Social Responsibility1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages CSR stands for Corporate Social Responsibility. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is defined by many groups like, Tata steel, Coca Cola, Reliance, Videocon etc. Although they all stand for similar meanings connecting to taking responsibilities of the society as a business individual, its definition has been getting broader from a established point of view, corporate social responsibility is a type of business instruction included in a business demonstration. CSR policy functions as a self-regulatoryRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility ( Csr )1173 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is highly important to Millennials. If a company is lacking a CSR plan, now it a good time to start one. Millennials are looking for ways in making a positive impact on the world and are expecting the same from companies. They are looking for companies that contribute to the betterment of communities and the environment. Millennials put great value in supporting such brands, companies and organizations that share these values. Companies without a CSR in placeRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility ( Csr )1314 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSocial responsibility has become a primal interest to the humankind for the past two decades. In the earlier days, the firms and organizations concentrated only on the financial part of the business and ignored the ethical, social and moral sectors. But in the recent times, the businesses are getting a grip of the significance of the social, ecological and environmental effects on their success. This has resulted in t he emerging interactions between organizations and social segments thus giving riseRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility : Csr979 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe notion of Corporate Social Responsibility is a phenomenon globally known for many years. In spite of the fact that CSR has been neglected for quite a long time, nowadays several authors deal with this issue, as revealed by the development of theories in recent years concerning the topic. In spite of the fact that there has been a huge growth of literature it is still impossible to simply define CSR. Many definitions trying to capture the concept of CSR exist, but their content varies (MattenRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility ( Csr )1370 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmore attention on the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The core issue is the appropriate responsibility of business. In as much as firms ought to obey the law, but beyond complete compliance with environmental laws, the question is whether firms have extra social responsibilities to commit part of their resources to environmental preservation voluntarily. This memo provides an exploratory investigation of the link between corporate social responsibility and the benefits accruing to a
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
The Conflicts, Climax and Resolution in Ã¢â¬Å"The RappacciniÃ¢â¬â¢s DaughterÃ¢â¬ This essay will analyze Nathaniel HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The RappacciniÃ¢â¬â¢s DaughterÃ¢â¬ to determine the conflicts in the tale, their climax and resolution, using the essays of literary critics to help in this interpretation. In the opinion of this reader, the central conflict Ã¢â¬â the relation between the protagonist and antagonist usually(Abrams 225) - in the tale is an internal one within Giovanni between his love for Beatrice and his Puritan belief in the depravity of man. His love for the beautiful daughter blinds him to various indications of her poisonous nature, to the evil nature of her father and to the intent of her father to involve Giovanni as aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The reader sees another character enter the tale with the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s shout Ã¢â¬Å"in the infirm voice of a person affected with inward disease, -- `Ã¢â¬â¢Beatrice! Beatrice!Ã¢â¬â¢ From his window Giovanni sees approaching the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter Ã¢â¬Å"beautiful as the day, and with a bloom so deep and vivid that one shade more would have been too much.Ã¢â¬ Her abilities are exceptional because it is apparent to Giovanni that Ã¢â¬Å"she handled and inhaled the odor of several of the plants which her f ather had most sedulously avoided.Ã¢â¬ Beatrice exhibits an especially close relationship to the purple gem plant, which Rappaccini is too fearful of tending anymore: ``Yes, my sister, my splendour, it shall be Beatrices task to nurse and serve thee; and thou shalt reward her with thy kisses and perfumed breath, which to her is as the breath of life. Beatrice is slowly developed into a round character, not as round as Giovanni however. When the main character awakens the following morning, the
Sunday, December 8, 2019
For the tribe the ituri forest is everything; they view the forest as a scared place in the world, since there is an ample amount of food all year long. There unique traditional economy is run on the basis of survival and not surplus. The mbuti only take what they need and feel that working to gain more than what you need is pointless. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why when deciding what to produce, the mbuti tribes or bands always search for the essentials of living, along with scared items for ceremonies or rituals. The mbuti people like live in small bands and that band decides what they need. They also distribute the goods according to who needs it. The people are very social among the tribe, they like to work together and spend time with family and friends when there not searching or hunting for goods. The ituri forest has an ample amount of supply throughout the year; it contains many mushrooms, roots, berries, nuts and herbs and a variety of leafy vegetables. We will write a custom essay sample on The Mbuti Pygmies or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The forest is also a provider of medicines. The mbuti use the forest to treat many different kinds of illnesses including headaches, eye inflammation, heart pains, toothaches, pen wounds, toe rot and even hemorrhoids. All of which are treated by natural substances that contain leaves, tree bark, stems, plants, roots and berries. The mbuti people try to make use of all the things the forest has to provide. The mbuti tribe divides up the work based on gender; both males and females have specific roles to play in their survival. The mbuti live in huts that are mainly made by the women of the tribe. Each hut holds one family if factors remain constant such as weather conditions. The huts are made out of tree stems as the base structure and then covered with bark and long leaves as a protection from wind, sun, heat, rain and dirt. Women are responsible for the building of the huts, however before the construction occurs everyone helps gather the materials needed. Hunting and gathering of game is mainly done by the men of the tribe. While sometimes females also gather berries and materials. The mbuti men and women both wear a loincloth made out of bark that is softened and hammered until it is long and smooth. Women have a longer loincloth, theirs hang down close to the ground; where men just have the cloth covering their genitals; making it more effective to wonder throughout the forest in search for game. They wear their clothes not for protection but for socialistic reasons. The Mbuti people are very spiritual and have many rituals where they thank the forest and everything it has provided them with. There are many items produced that are significant when having special occasions and reciting rituals. Black paste made from burnt ashes and fat from distinct animals are smeared on the body. The black paste is a significant ritual that is supposed to bring the person physically and psychologically closer to the forest. An important ceremonial event occurs after a good hunt where charms made out of tree vines and wood are placed on the body of the hunters. The mbuti also cover their arms with bracelets that are made from animal teeth, feathers, animal skin and wood. Ceremonies and rituals are also a way for the mbuti people to socialize and to spend time together. Items produced that have no need for survival or spiritual rituals and ceremonies are used for leisure activities. Spin tops, mainly used by the children, are made out of nut sections of the shell which is spun on the ground. Gambling exists in the mbuti cultural as well, though primarily played by the adults, children sometimes play. Seeds are dried out and thrown on the ground to make a total number that is a multiple of four. Those who have a multiple of four win the game and take the remainder of the seeds. Tug-of-war is another popular game that incorporates the whole band. The rope is made out of vines from trees where a group of people are on either sides of the vine and pull it in their direction. Such games were played to pass time, have fun and to strengthen bonds between the members of the groups. The pygmy people rely on hunting- gathering for sustenance and collection of food. They employ essentially four different methods of hunting namely, hunting in groups with spears for large mammals, hunting alone with bows and poison tipped arrows for monkeys, and hunting in groups with bows and iron tipped arrows for duikers and other mid-sized mammals. The animals they eat include crabs, shellfish, ants, larvae, snails, pigs, antelopes, monkeys, fishes, and honey. The vegetable component of their diet includes wild yams, berries, fruits, roots, leaves, and cola nuts. MbutiÃ¢â¬â¢s are very small in height only averaging about four feet and are very thin and stocky. Since their hunting techniques are not technological advanced they have adapted to make themselves invisible in the forest. Mbuti men although short have the ability to kill an elephant with only short-handed spear. Hunting tools that are produced include spears, and bow and arrows; all of which are crafted by hand with help of fire (fire makes the spears and bows sharp when heated and hammered down). There are also nets made out of tree stems and bark to help hunters capture animals. Although many hunters roam throughout the forest with no weapons they believe that they belong to the forest so there is no need for fear, the only danger is what lies outside the forest Hunting for monkeys is a solitary activity the success of which depends upon the stealth of the hunter. The hunter would travel quietly listening and looking out for monkeys feeding on the tress. He attempts to anticipate the direction of the troop movement and positions himself accordingly, usually under a fruit bearing tree. The hunter then attempts to shoot the monkeys as they approach using his poison tipped arrow. The great majority of the arrows are lost as they lose their targets i. e the monkey. The hunter then goes to fetch the monkey that has been hit and takes it back to his own clan. Net hunting is used mainly for the collection and hunting of antelopes. These nets are generally produced by women and owned by married men or outstanding hunters. The mbutis hunting technique is to rig nets, about 1 meter high and up to 100 m long, end-to-end in a semicircle, reaching 1500 m in perimeter, then to drive all the game inside toward the nets. Small game, such as Gambian rats, porcupines and mongoose often escape by slipping underneath the net or through its 7-centimeter mesh. Large game, animals weighing over 30 kilograms, can break through. Thus the net hunt is especially adapted to the capture of duikers, small antelope. The animal is then captured and killed used suitable tools. The hunting methods the Mbuti people use is regarded as efficient and effective since none of the resources or animals gathered are being wasted; this is because the Mbuti people do not hunt more than what they need except when they use the excess hunt for trade with other villagers. Also, given the circumstances, the Mbuti people normally hunt in bands in order to increase their catch or to succeed in hunting larger preys such as elephants. No or very little resources and human resources are wasted in the process of hunting; gathering too since itÃ¢â¬â¢s an easy task which is done by an individual only who gathers fruits and sometimes honey for the nuclear family of his. In the mbuti there is no such thing as surplus, for a variety of reasons. The surplus is valued very highly in many cultures although mbutiÃ¢â¬â¢s do not feel the need to take more than what is needed for survival yet if there are some items that are left over they are used for ceremonies such as the charms. The mbuti live unmaterialistic lives in the sense that physical possessions are not valued. Since the mbutiÃ¢â¬â¢s are foragers it is impossible to move around with a surplus supply of goods. Since there is no fear that there will ever be a shortage of game and vegetation in the forest there is no need to create surplus; even though, the mbutiÃ¢â¬â¢s have the capability to create and to do so. The mbuti feel as if creating a surplus of goods is a waste of time. If they have everything required for survival, there is no need to search for more. They would rather spend their time with other members of the tribe celebrating life and honoring the forest for providing them with everything. Economic aspects of the reciprocity between Mbuti and villagers have been maintained for a long time. Starch foods from villagers gardens make up a significant part of Mbuti diet year-round. Mbuti provide villagers, on an irregular basis, with prestige foods such as meat and honey from the forest. They help clear and harvest the gardens and participate in seasonal fishing expeditions. Mbuti also provide diverse forest products such as thatching and construction materials, firewood, medicinal plants and edible mushrooms. Exchange relations between Mbuti and villagers are not rigidly defined; there are no fixed terms of trade. Cash is rarely involved and exchanges may even take the form of gift giving. Mbuti, as nomads, are highly unpredictable in what they will provide and when they will provide it. Villagers, on the other hand, have a fairly predictable yearly cycle of activities centered on the preparation, planting and harvesting of their gardens. women who are most often involved in initiating, negotiating and terminating trade relationships with the village, and it is primarily the village women with whom exchanges are executed. A large proportion of exchanges a woman makes are with the wife of her husbands traditional trading partner. Exchanges of meat and honey in particular are usually made with this person. These tributes of prestige foods are probably crucial in maintaining the stability of long-term ties. However, women establish many other trading relationships on their own initiative. Although the prospect of acquiring meat or honey in the future is probably an important factor in the willingness of the village to enter new associations with the mbuti, it is most often the labor of women rather than forest products which villagers receive in exchange for food and material goods. Tasks which women perform for villagers include agricultural work, maintenance tasks such as collecting wood and water, and collection of forest products used in building and maintaining village houses. Cultivated foods procured by mbuti women in exchange for labor form the mainstay of the diet, and women retain control over the distribution of all foods they procure. Men also provide labor for villagers, particularly when patches of forest are being cleared for gardens. A man may also on occasion take meat directly to his village patron, rather than allowing his wife to make the exchange. Men, however, request payment in non-food items such as implements, clothing, tobacco and marijuana much more often than women. Trading relationships established by women can become very important during times of food shortage, when villagers may be unwilling or unable to continue providing food for their traditional mbuti trading partners. An household or even the entire band may then initiate a formal relationship with another village or villager, frequently ones with whom the women in the group have already established informal ties. A group may also temporarily join another band that is associated with a wealthier village. This joining of bands is often the result of kin ties of women in the group. The mbuti women have considerable freedom in their choice of subsistence strategies. They decide how much time to spend gathering or working in the village. They may work alone, or cooperate with other women in procuring food. They also have considerable influence over group decisions, particularly those regarding the location of camps. Since women routinely carry up to three-quarters of their body weight in food from the village, camps which are located long distances from the village represent much greater work effort than those which are close. In contrast, mens preferred hunting sites are usually very far from the village. It is rare for an mbuti camp to be located more than a days walk from the village; most are within a four-hour walk. Although never totally out of touch with villagers, Mbuti spend a great deal of time in the forest. They are considered by all, including themselves, as the forest people, being the most familiar with the forest and the most efficient at extracting its resources. There is no monetary value on the exchange for items that is needed for the mbuti efficiency. Since the forest doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t provide them with any sort of metal they exchange goods such as game and vegetation with villagers for iron blades and metal pots. This is the only time when they create a surplus of goods. Exchanging food for metal items is Pareto efficient. Since the mbuti have an abundant supply of natural resources this is considered a very fair trade because in return they are receiving goods that will make daily tasks much easier. Although there is no need for metal items in the mbuti cultural, the metal acts as an efficient way to make food and kill game by having pots and blades for their spears and bows. Trade amongst the band rarely happens and the need to have fair reciprocity is rare. Kinship is amongst everyone in the tribe even if there is no blood relationship. The mbuti tribes have set up different rules regarding, what to produce, how to produce and how to distribute. Everything produced in the mbuti society has a significant role; whether it is for survival, spiritual ceremonies or simply for leisure activities. They hunt and gather their food, along with rare visits to the surrounding villages. Also the goods are divided on the basis of who needs what. They are a very social tribe and care for one another even they have no blood relationships. One cannot simply compare the mbuti society to any modernized or westernized society because what is important to one is not important to the other. Westernized societies are mainly self-interested desiring profit and surplus where the mbuti society are mainly focused on living and socialization amongst the society; each having different motives. From looking through the view point of the mbuti, one can answer that question by stating what they are producing is effective in meeting the needs are fulfilled. However, looking through the view point of the modernized society one would answer that question by stating that the production of goods are not meeting the needs for the society because what is being produced is only fulfilling survival and spiritual needs. They are not utilizing their full capability to produce goods furthermore there is significant opportunity costs. Although, the mbuti could convey that there society is economically efficient as they are getting the highest benefit from the economies resources. Both societies have different wants and needs that shape the way they live and perceive life.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Vermont Trip VERMONT TRIP: On behalf of myself, and many other students, I would like to formally address the Drug and Alcohol problem that accompanied the 1999-2000 school year Vermont trip. Many times I have heard stories about the ?infamous? Vermont Ski trip, and the many illegal things that have occurred consistently throughout the years. To the best of my knowledge this behavior was ignored, overlooked, and typical of this trip. So in believing that this kind of ?partying? was habitual, I decided to participate along with several others who had attended past trips. At first I was hesitant in bringing anything, but after a couple of conversations with certain individuals, I was convinced that it would be all right to do so without any punishment being enforced. Thus brought me to obtaining the ?single? bottle I was bringing for a friend ,and I to consume with others, along with the other alcoholic beverages brought on the trip by my peers. This brings us to the time of departure for Vermont, on Thursday March 17, 2000. At approximately 11:50 PM I arrived to load the bus. At a little after 12:00 AM we left the Holley High School for Vermont, without ?A BAG CHECK? by any of the seven chaperones. After a ten hour drive we arrived at our destination, Stowe Ski Resort. At around 4:30 PM we loaded the bus to go to the Courtyard By Marriot, the hotel in which we would be staying at for the remainder of the trip. Following our arrival we were given the room assignments, we then unpacked our bags quickly, and my roommates and I hid the alcohol that we each brought under our beds. After that a majority of us students went to the pool, and jacuzzi for a swim before our expected 7:00 PM dinner time. Dinner lasted for about a half an hour, to forty-five minutes, and soon after I then again went to the pool with a couple of people for another swim. Around 8:30 PM I returned upstairs to a friends room, where I then received a phone call from one of my roommates asking me if I planned on returning to our room to ?drink.? I answered hesitantly, but after a little debating I decided to go back to my room. At that moment I only returned ,to change out of my swim clothes, before I headed back to the friends room. While I was in my room changing I was asked by two of my roommates to compare their drinks, and decipher which was better. This then proves that the alcohol, both mine, and my roommates, had already been out and consumed long before I first returned. After that, I went to my friends room and we both then returned to my room at about 9:00pm. Upon arrival we had found six other people in my room already there for one purpose. I then proceeded to ask one of my roommates where the bottles were, he then replied ?in the liquor cabinet,? sure enough there I found all the alcohol moved from under the beds where I last knew it to be, into the place where I was storing my clothes. At that moment I removed ?the bottle? from the cabinet to pass around to my friends. First I had opened the bottle so that everyone could smell the Butter Scotch aroma. After passing it around to all eight people including myself., we then all took ?one baby sip? from the bottle. A few moments after that most of the people in my room decided to go take a swim. Then three female students left to go change into their swimming attire, leaving my friend, three of my roommates, and myself in the room. At this point the bottle had been sealed for a couple of minutes. I was then listening to one of my roommates tell a story, while the other two changed. During this short period of time there was a knock on the door, and Mr. Orbaker who was the ski trip advisor, walked into the room to see me holding the bottle in my hands. After I got done listening to my roommates story I then noticed Mr. Orbaker standing in the hallway staring at me. He then motioned for me to walk over to him, as I did he signaled for the bottle, grabbed the liquor and proceeded to say? way to be
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Tigers Essays - Tigers, Fauna Of Asia, Biota, Tiger, Bengal Tiger Tigers Tigers are descended from civet-like animals called niacis that lived during the age of the dinosaurs about 60 million years ago (Dang, 1994). These small mammals, with long bodies and short flexible limbs, evolved over millions of years into several hundred different species, including cats, bears, dogs and weasels. About 37 cat species exist today (Dang, 1994). Tigers evolved in eastern Asia , but it is not exact. Sabre-tooth tigers are not the ancestors of today's tigers. In fact, sabre-tooth tigers belonged to a separate branch of cat evolution which became extinct many millions of years ago. The Siberian or Amur tiger lives primarily in eastern Russia, and a few are found in northeastern China and northern North Korea. It is estimated that 437-506 Siberian tigers still exist in the wild (Tilson ,1995). About 490 captive Siberian tigers a re managed in zoo conservation programs (Tilson, 1995). The South China tiger is the most critically endnagered of all tiger subspecies. They are found in central and eastern China. It is estimated that only 20-30 South China tigers are left in the wild (Dang ,1994). Currently 48 South China tigers live in 19 zoos, all in China (Dang ,1994). The distribution of the Indochinese tiger is centered in Thailand, and is found in Myanmar, southern China, CAnbodia, Laos, Vietnam, and penisular Malaysia. About 1,180- 1,790 Indochines tigers are left in the wild and about 60 live in zoos (Tilson, 1995). Bengal tigers live in India, and some range through Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Myanmar. The estimated wild population is approzimately 3,060- 4,735 tigers, with about 333 in captivity, primarily in zoos in India (Dang, 1994). White tigers are just white-colored Bengal tigers. They ae not a separate subspecies of tiger, and they are no albinos. They have blue eyes, a pink nose, and creamy white fur with chocolate colored striipes, White tigers are only born when two tigers that both carry the unusual gene for white coloring mate, Wild white tigers are very rare, and todayt they can only be seen in zoos. The Sumatrain tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. About 400-500 wild Sumatran tigers are believed to exist, primarily inthe island's five national parks (Dang, 1994). Another 235 Simatran tigers live in zoos around the world (Dang, 1994). Three tiger subspecies have been considered to become extinct in the past 70 years (Tilson ,1994). The Caspian tiger, known as the Panthera tigris virgata, once ranged in Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Mongolia, and Central Asiatic area of Russia and probably went extinct in the 1950's (Tilson, 1995). The Javan tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, formerly ranged on the Indonesian island of Java and was last seen in 1972 (Tilson, 1995). The Bali tiger, Panthera tigris balica, once lived on Bali, where the last tiger was believed to have been killed in 1937 (Tilson, 1995). Tigers have social behavior. Adult tigers are solitary animal that establish their territories in areas with enough prey, cover and water to support them. The hardship of loating prey in tiger habitat makes it more efficient for tigers to hunt alone. As a result, they do not tend to form social groups like lions. A female tiger and her cubs are the exception to this, and will form a family group for 2 to 3 years, until the cubs are able to fend for themselves (Dang ,1994). The territory of a tiger usually ranges in size from about 10 to 30 square miles, although the territory of a Siberian tiger may be as large as 120 square miles (Tilson, 1995). Both male and female tigers spray bushes and trees along their route with amixture of urine and scent gland secretions. This is a way of declaring their territory. They also leave marks on trees, and urinate or leave droppongs in prominent places. Female tigers reach maturity when they area bout 3 years old and males reach it when they are a year or so later (Dang, 1994). In temperate climates, a tigress comes into heat only seasonally , but in tropical climates, she may come int heat throughtout the year. She signals her readiness with scent marking and locating roars. The brief act of copulaiton occurs continually for a five day period. Tigers
Friday, November 22, 2019
Inspirational Nelson Mandela Quotes We are not anti-white, we are against white supremacy Ã¢â¬ ¦ we have condemned racialism no matter by whom it is professed.Nelson Mandela, defence statement during the Treason Trial, 1961. Never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by anotherÃ¢â¬ ¦Nelson Mandela, Inaugural Address, Pretoria 9 May 1994. We enter into a covenant that we shall build a society in which all South Africans, both black and white, will be able to walk tall, without and fear in their hearts, assured of their inalienable right to human dignity Ã¢â¬â a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world.Nelson Mandela, Inaugural Address, Pretoria 9 May 1994. Our single most important challenge is therefore to help establish a social order in which the freedom of the individual will truly mean the freedom of the individual. We must construct that people-centred society of freedom in such a manner that it guarantees the political liberties and the human rights of all our citizens.Nelson Mandela, speech at the opening of the South African parliament, Cape Town 25 May 1994. There is nothing like returning to a place that remains unchanged to find ways in which you yourself have altered.Nelson Mandela, A Long Walk To Freedom, 1994. If we had any hopes or illusions about the National Party before they came into office, we were disabused of them quicklyÃ¢â¬ ¦The arbitrary and meaningless tests to decide black form Coloured or Coloured from white often resulted in tragic casesÃ¢â¬ ¦Where one was allowed to live and work could rest on such absurd distinctions as the curl of ones hair or the size of ones lips.Nelson Mandela, Long Walk To Freedom, 1994. Ã¢â¬ ¦the only [other] thing my father bestowed upon me at birth was a name, Rolihlahla. In Xhosa, Rolihlahla literally means pulling the branch of a tree, but its colloquial meaning more accurately would be troublemaker.Nelson Mandela, Long Walk To Freedom, 1994. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons will live together in harmony with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for, and to see realised. But my Lord, if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.Nelson Mandela, defence statement during the Rivonia Trial, 1964. Also repeated during the closing of his speech delivered in Cape Town on the day he was released from prison 27 years later, on 11 February 1990.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Project Management - Essay Example The trade show materials have to be shipped in time to reach before the trade show, the vendor/printed has to deliver in time so that they can be shipped in time. The timing for training the staff is vital as Pat will be away on vacation; travel arrangements are essential to avoid last minute complications as shows of this magnitude attract participants from all over the world. Not all, but many activities are dependent on the previous activity, which adds importance to adhering to time schedules. Hence, time management would involve defining and sequencing the activity, estimate the duration and the resources, and develop the schedule (ITPM, n.d.). The second most important knowledge area recognized by the PMBOK is the human resources management. Every knowledge area includes a planning area (ITPM). Most effective use of the people involved in the project has to be done. The first task is to identify the staff and assign roles, like Pat and Terry have been identified, taking into account their strengths and weaknesses. The project roles, responsibilities and reporting relationships have to be assigned (Duncan, n.d.). Staff acquisition is essential after which the team development needs to be executed. For any project to be a success teamwork is essential, hence acquiring, developing and managing the project team is essential. Effort and expertise of different individuals are necessary to execute the project effectively. Hence, this knowledge area also involves delegating, motivating, coaching and mentoring. The third most important knowledge area relevant to the trade show project is communication. This involves timely and effe ctive generation, dissemination, storage and disposition of the project information (Duncan). Since most activities are independent, communication at all levels gains importance. Everyone involved in the project must be prepared to receive and send communication in the language understood by all.Communication planning
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Hobbes, Augustine, Aristotle and Lockes thoughts on the idea that a political state is created to make people in it happy and virtuous - Essay Example By design, then, Aristotle saw the city-state as a body intended to help create laws and standards that would further help individuals living in this city-state to live happy and virtuous lives. According to Hobbes, society is founded upon the principles of natural law, in which it is clear that the guiding principle remains to allow each individual the right to exist and to obtain what is fair and necessary for their continued survival. Because he felt that individuals were, by nature, in a constant state of Ã¢â¬ËwarÃ¢â¬â¢ with other individuals, it was undeniably up to the political state to ensure that all people adhered to the written laws that were themselves based upon natural law. Natural law, in turn, indicated that all people had the right to exist and to acquire the necessary materials to sustain themselves while respecting these rights of others. Since natural man was in a constant state of war and political states were established as a means of ensuring that natural man adhered to natural law rather than war, it follows that a political state, in HobbesÃ¢â¬â¢ view, was essentially created simply as a means of coercing people into living in tentatively agre eable, mutually beneficial states that often verged on the edge of competitive detriment. This is in keeping with the views held by Augustine, who seemed to feel that the laws of the state were more or less attempts by human leaders to coerce power from the hands of the people for their own individual benefit. While he recognized that government was essential to the thriving of a particular state, and therefore the health and well-being of its inhabitants, Augustine never lost sight of the concept that the government was formed more for the welfare of the rulers than the ruled. Thus, while it was necessary for the survival of the state and the welfare of the people, it was also, in AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, a necessary evil, a part of the retribution
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Critical Response to Martin and MilwayÃ¢â¬â¢s Editorial Essay In Ã¢â¬Å"A Productive Labour: The Only Limit to Productivity Growth is Human Ingenuity,Ã¢â¬ authors Martin and Milway present an argument for increasing productivity as a means of raising CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic health and living standards. Although Martin and MilwayÃ¢â¬â¢s editorial on productivity present a piece that is rational and easily understood, its effort to convince that readers of its main argument is encumbered by weaknesses in the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ approach and reasoning that lead to more questions being raised than answered in the course of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s reading. The editorial underlines the importance of improving CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity in light of rising prices of manufactured goods and services that accompanied the strengthening of the Canadian dollar in 2001. The main argument put forth is that enhancing productivity is critical in ensuring improvements on the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s living standards. The authors proceed to support their arguments by presenting two ways by which living standards can be raised, the first by increasing the number of working hours or using up more natural and physical resources for sustained wealth creation, and the second by improving productivity or raising the value created per working hour. After illustrating that the first way is not a viable alternative, the authors then concentrate on convincing the reader why the second way is better by defining the concept of productivity based on efficiency and innovation. The strength of Martin and MilwayÃ¢â¬â¢s editorial lies in its ability to appeal to the rational side of its readers and their ability to tackle an otherwise complicated subject in simple terms. The authors attempt to defend their arguments by stating facts and carefully defining their subject, that is, productivity. As a result, the readers are compelled to view their argument in consideration of the definition that they present. Unfortunately, several weaknesses in Martin and MilwayÃ¢â¬â¢s editorial in terms of their approach and in their reasoning reduce the effectivity of their argument. The biggest errors that exist in the editorial are faulty reasoning and the inability of the authors to substantiate their claim. As a consequence, the authors fail to persuade readers that Ã¢â¬Å"productivity is the surest way to raise our living standards. Ã¢â¬ (par. 4) The editorial was clearly written to convince readers that Canada needs to raise its productivity if it is to continue its economic growth and if it is to raise living standards. On the other hand, the authors fail to present evidence to substantiate this claim aside from the argument that it is the most cost-effective alternative in terms of labour, time, and natural resources. The authors automatically assumed that the readers of the editorial would readily accept that an increase in economic growth follows from an increase in productivity. Likewise, this argument raises several implications: first, that economic growth is not possible without an increased productivity; second, that productivity growth always leads to a raise in the living standards. It is here that the informed audience becomes wary as the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ bias shows through in their failure to consider countries with high productivity growth but low living standards. This shows a lack of forethought of the authors in answering the questions that would be inevitably raised by their argument. The main weakness of the editorial is that the authors commit fallacies in reasoning. For one, they are Ã¢â¬Å"begging the questionÃ¢â¬ wherein the reader must already accept the conclusion in order to accept the evidence forwarded (Boyne, et. al. , 69). For instance, the authors enumerate the ways by which productivity can be improved to support their main contention. They state that Ã¢â¬Å"productivity increases in one of two ways: greater efficiency in how we employ labour and capital, or greater value creation per unit of these inputs. Ã¢â¬ (par. 8) This flow of the discussion reflects an assumption on the part of the authors that their main argument has already been accepted by the readers since discussing the ways by which productivity can be improved does not necessarily support the argument that productivity will improve the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. This circular reasoning makes the reader feel like the authors are trying to sound logical but cannot support their argument beyond the definition of the subject. Another obvious error in reasoning in the Martin and MilwayÃ¢â¬â¢s editorial is superstition (Boyne, et. al. , 70) or hasty generalization. The authors attempt to prove the argument that Ã¢â¬Å"Productivity growth also benefits workers and consumersÃ¢â¬ (par. 14) by stating that Ã¢â¬Å"countries and regions with higher productivity pay higher wagesÃ¢â¬ (par. 14) which assumes that higher wages automatically result from higher productivity. If one is to follow this argument, then it would imply that countries and regions that pay lower wages are not productive or low in productivity. In sum, a critical analysis of the piece reveals that the weaknesses outweigh the positive aspects in Martin and MilwayÃ¢â¬â¢s editorial. Shortcomings in substantiating the editorialÃ¢â¬â¢s central argument with credible evidence as well as the inability to defend their argument in a logical manner renders the entire editorial ineffective in convincing the reader of the importance of improving productivity to improve their lives.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
1. Introduction:- The development of good quality software is very important factor in software industry . Medical software of medical devices with embedded software and decision support system can have great affect on the supply of patient care . A good quality software with poor management practices will never give very good quality of services. Hospital industry and telecom industry are facing challenges in terms of managing software . There have lots of reasons behind this activity . Main reasons are size , complexity of practices , management and comply to change. Depending upon the quality of the software systems, the accuracy of data and consequently of information are determined . There are a number of major and minor systems placed in Irish hospitals , where patients clinicians , nursing , it , administration , data entry personnel , researchers , governing bodies , and external auditors have different expectations understanding and requirements . The use of MS Access allows staff with little experience or knowledge of data quality techniques to collect data which is used for crucial decision making process along the patient journey . I will discuss an implementation of a software quality plan for Irish hospitals through the use of recognised healthcare and software quality models and standards in this essay.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Political risk, for examples the Gulf war and terrorism somehow damaging passenger confidence, particularly in the US. Presence of political support and lobbying for major EU/US aerospace businesses Support of EU aircraft manufacturer for Rolls-RoyceSubsidies by EU government US tax breaks for Rolls-RoyceCarbon emissions under the Kyoto protocol is targets for reduction by EU, creating pressures for reduced impact of air travel Policy formation for example Open Skies liberalisation package (2008), allowing any US or EU-based airline to launch scheduled services between the US and EU.PEST analysisFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, searchÃ¢â¬Å"PESTÃ¢â¬ redirects here. For the special forces unit of the Slovenian Military Police, see Specialized Unit for Special Tactics. PEST analysis (Political, Economic, Social and Technological analysis) describes a framework of macro-environmental factors used in the environmental scanning component of strategic management . Some analysts added Legal and rearranged the mnemonic to SLEPT; inserting Environmental factors expanded it to PESTEL or PESTLE, which is popular in the United Kingdom.The model has recently been further extended to STEEPLE and STEEPLED, adding Ethics and Demographic factors. It is a part of the external analysis when conducting a strategic analysis or doing market research, and gives an overview of the different macroenvironmental factors that the company has to take into consideration. It is a useful strategic tool for understanding market growth or decline, business position, potential and direction for operations. The growing importance of environmental or ecological factors in the first decade of the 21st century have given rise to green business and encouraged widespread use of an updated version of the PEST framework. STEER analysis systematically considers Socio-cultural, Technological, Economic, Ecological, and Regulatory factors.Contents [hide] 1 Composition 2 Applicabil ity of the factors 3 Use of PEST analysis with other models 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCompositionThe basic PEST analysis includes four factors:Political factors are basically to what degree the government intervenes in the economy. Specifically, political factors include areas such as tax policy, labor law, environmental law, trade restrictions, tariffs, and political stability. Political factors may also include goods and services which the government wants to provide or be provided (merit goods) and those that the government does not want to be provided (demerit goods or merit bads). Furthermore, governments have great influence on the health, education, and infrastructure of a nation. Economic factors include economic growth, interest rates, exchange rates and the inflation rate. These factors have major impacts on how businesses operate and make decisions. For example, interest rates affect a firm's cost of capital and therefore to what extent a business grows and expands.Exchange rates affect the costs of exporting goods and the supply and price of imported goods in an economy. Social factors include the cultural aspects and include health consciousness, population growth rate, age distribution, career attitudes and emphasis on safety. Trends in social factors affect the demand for a company's products and how that company operates. For example, an aging population may imply a smaller and less-willing workforce (thus increasing the cost of labor). Furthermore, companies may change various management strategies to adapt to these social trends (such as recruiting older workers). Technological factors include technological aspects such as R&D activity, automation, technology incentives and the rate of technological change. They can determine barriers to entry, minimum efficient production level and influence outsourcing decisions. Furthermore, technological shifts can affect costs, quality, and lead to innovation.Expanding the analysis toÃ PE STLE or PESTEL adds:Legal factors include discrimination law, consumer law, antitrust law, employment law, and health and safety law. These factors can affect how a company operates, its costs, and the demand for its products. Environmental factors include ecological and environmental aspects such as weather, climate, and climate change, which may especially affect industries such as tourism, farming, and insurance. Furthermore, growing awareness of the potential impacts of climate change is affecting how companies operate and the products they offer, both creating new markets and diminishing or destroying existing ones. Other factors for the various offshoots include:Demographic factors include gender, age, ethnicity, knowledge of languages, disabilities, mobility, home ownership, employment status, religious belief or practice, and income level. Regulatory factors include acts of parliament and associated regulations, international and national standards, local government by-laws, and mechanisms to monitor and ensure compliance with these. Applicability of the factorsThe model's factors will vary in importance to a given company based on its industry and the goods it produces. For example, consumer and B2B companies tend to be more affected by the social factors, while a global defense contractor would tend to be more affected by political factors. Additionally, factors that are more likely to change in the future or more relevant to a given company will carry greater importance. For example, a company which has borrowed heavily will need to focus more on the economic factors (especially interest rates). Furthermore, conglomerate companies who produce a wide range of products (such as Sony, Disney, or BP) may find it more useful to analyze one department of its company at a time with the PESTEL model, thus focusing on the specific factors relevant to that one department. A company may also wish to divide factors into geographical relevance, such as local, na tional, and global Use of PEST analysis with other modelsThe PEST factors, combined with external micro-environmental factors andÃ internal drivers, can be classified as opportunities and threats in a SWOT analysis.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Marketing decisions are an important part of the management practice. Large-scale databases and applications are methods that have increased tremendously over the years. Ã¢â¬Å"In the twenty-first century we expect that marketing managers will increasingly customize products and services and the supporting marketing programs.Ã¢â¬ (Leeflang & Wittnk, 2000) There have been several areas that have advanced in the future of marketing. Most organizations have customized services and products to customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and wants. This has become a normal activity in order to stay competitive in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s market. A guest editorial written by Naresh K. Malhotra explains that Ã¢â¬Å"leading scholars from several different areas of marketing were invited to contributeÃ¢â¬ to answer such questions as Ã¢â¬Å"What have we learned? What gaps remain? Is marketing as a discipline well positioned to meet the challenges of the next century? What future directions should marketing take?Ã¢â¬ (Malhotra, 1999) These questions are vital to refine the present theories in order to meet future challenges in marketing. Marketing research is a useful tool in checking how things are going as well as to find out if there are any unanticipated problems that may arise. Finding any gaps in marketing is also found by research and can help in the implementation of new technology of the future. Knowing how to attract more potential cliental is a direction that marketing needs to take in order to stay competitive in the global market. Implementing a gap analysis will help in finding out if there are any gaps in the marketing of any product. This analysis will identify what needs to be addressed and how to address the issue. This will also help in finding the type of market the product should be marketed. The analysis will also help in meeting the challenges of the next century and what direction the company needs to take in marketing their product. Ã¢â¬Å"The 20th century saw considerable advances in both marketing theory and practice.Ã¢â¬ (Taylor, 2000) At the end of the century, important research developed that has advanced knowledge in several areas that include relationship marketing, international marketing, and marketing services to name a few. But the introduction of cyberspace has been the largest emerging issue in marketing. With the internet becoming very useful to the consumer, these users have increased sales dramatically. Ã¢â¬Å"However, keeping up with the rapid advances in technology will be a challenge for marketing researchers for years to come.Ã¢â¬ (Taylor, 2002) Notably there are a few areas that have realized that Ã¢â¬Å"In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s environment, customer share should replace market share, customer managers should replace brand managers, and customer profitability should replace product profitability. With the vast increases in information technology it is now possible to apply these ideas in consumer markets. Financial service and transportation firms appear to be making steady progress in this direction.Ã¢â¬ (Leeflang & Wittnk, 2000) Take for an example, our public transportation here in Pinellas County. Just recently this organization has placed investigators onboard these busses to ask customers questions on how the service is and what improvements should be done. In the last couple of months there have been a few new bus routes added to accommodate new customers in areas that havenÃ¢â¬â¢t had any bus routes before. The future of marketing today has a few bumps to overcome. One is in the academic field, where there is a concern whether academic classes are closing the gap from the past to the future and the other is marketing through the internet. The role of academic marketing helps in the theory and methods in the practice of marketing in the future. Ã¢â¬Å"There is an alarming and growing gap between the interests, standards, and priorities of academic marketers and the needs of marketing executives operating in an ambiguous, uncertain, fast-changing, and complex marketspace.Ã¢â¬ (Dekimpe & Hanssens, 2000) This growing gap is becoming damaging to the marketing long-term outcome for the future. The future of business schools is to advance the practice of business, practice of marketing which includes its impact on business strategy, the businesses success and societyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to address these challenges, and should become a part of the decision in advancement in the marketing field. With the education that business schools provide, the decisions on relevant issues and making a difference in the practice of the marketing student. This is one field that the future of marketing needs to work on in order to have educated personnel. It is unfortunate that the academics field of marketing doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to advance quickly in the information provided, but the future can hold new information as the marketing field continues to grow and have more models to give illustrations. The future Ã¢â¬Å"for the whole marketing academic community to work on relevant business problems is an easier path to undertake after tenure has been achieved than before, at least until the structural changes are in place.Ã¢â¬ (Reibstein, Day & Wind, 2009) This is well said and does show that the future in marketing academics is going to be something to take into consideration for any future business major The future of marketing should provide more emphasis on societal research. Ã¢â¬Å"There are three further issues that merit consideration: (1) intrinsic research characteristics and constraints, (2) research receptivity by the journal reviewers today, and (3) personal motivation and purpose.Ã¢â¬ (Wilkie & Moore, 2012) All of the above considerations are based on facts, theories, methods and applications learned. Studying marketing in society will offer many opportunities and careers that will invite future marketers to pursue. Online marketing is another form of marketing for the future. This form of strategy allows the organization to Ã¢â¬Å"demonstrate the growing power of online communities in building brand reputations and customer relationships.Ã¢â¬ (Harris & Rae, 2009) When first introduced, the internet only provided customers to view the organizations web site. Now social networks advertise products for companies worldwide. Social networks such as YouTube and Facebook use companyÃ¢â¬â¢s advertisements to provide a free service to those networks clients, and to help the companies that advertise to market their product. Social networking is changing the way businesses and their customers relate to one another. Social networking does have a good side and a bad side. On the good side of social networking, a company can offer a means where customers can write a review of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product and other customers are able to read these reviews. This can lead to more customers providing that the reviews are positive. The bad side of social networking is criticism of the customer service provided by the company. If a customer had a bad experience, they would post that experience to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s blog or to an online community such as www.getsatisfaction.com. This website provides a forum for customers to raise questions or to complain about a wide range of companies resulting in discussions displayed for other inquirers to search and view. The only thing wrong with this site is if the company doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t monitor this site and give input to the complaint, the company may look to the consumer as hiding something. Although this is all new and still in the beginning stages, social networking can be a very useful new tool for organizations in the future. . References Dekimpe, M. G., & Hanssens, D. M. (2000). Time-series models in marketing: Past, present and future. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 17(2-3), 183-193. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(00)00014-8 Harris, L., & Rae, A. (2009). Social networks: the future of marketing for small business. Journal of Business Strategy, 30(5), 24-31. doi: 10.1108/02756660910987581 Leeflang, P. S. H., & Wittnk, D. R. (2000). Building models for marketing decisions:: Past, present and future. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 17(2-3), 105-126. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(00)00008-2 Malhotra, N. K. (1999). Guest editorial: The past, present, and future of the marketing discipline. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science., 27(2), 116-119. doi: 10.1177/0092070399272001 Reibstein, D. J., Day, G., & Wind, J. (2009). Guest editorial: Is marketing academia losing its way?. American Marketing Association, 73(4), 1-3. doi:10.1509/jmkg.73.4.1 Taylor, C. R. (2000 ). Emerging issues in marketing. (6 ed., Vol. 17, pp. 441-447). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Wilkie, W., & Moore, E. (2012). Expanding our understanding of marketing in society. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(1), 53-73. doi: 10.1007/s11747-011-0277-y
Thursday, November 7, 2019
A Day of Terror essays The events of September 11, 2001 are going to be remembered as the worst terrorist acts in United States history. These attacks were so well planned out that the American people could only hold their breath as each of the planes reached their intended targets. The country was at the mercy of these terrorists. The citizens of the United States could only watch the terror unfold as the day went on. We were forced to sit idly by and wonder if there was another planned attack and if so where were they going to strike next. When the first plane crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center, we had no idea that this was not just an unfortunate accident. We could not envision that this was the start of something far worse than anyone could have possibly imagined. Who could believe that this planned attack, the use of an airplane as a weapon, could do enough damage to a 110-story building to make it collapse? To watch, as innocent people, stuck in the tower above the airplanes impact actually jump out of the tower in desperation before it collapsed, will forever be imbedded in the Americans minds. Who would think that people in such a desperate state of mind would do the unbelievable? As if this wasnt enough, other terrorist attacks began to unfold in other parts of the country. As the news spread that a second plane crashed into the South Tower of the World Trade Center, our thoughts began to change from, Why would someone do this to us? to Whats next? We had just witnessed two airplanes crash into two different 110-story buildings causing them to catch on fire, trap innocent people inside and begin to sway. The unthinkable was about to happen. These two towers would collapse within thirty minutes of each other and thousands of innocent people would lose their lives. The combination of the flames and the force of the two towers collapsing actually caused two other buildings at t...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
College Essay Prompts Complete List, Analysis, and Advice SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips When talking about college essays, wetend to focus on the Common Application prompts, and it's true that many students will need to write a Common App essay. However, there are actually quite a few schools, including both public and private universities,that don't use the Common App and instead ask applicants to respond to their own college essay prompts. Luckily, college essay prompts tend to be pretty similar to each other. In this guide, I'll list all the college essay questions for popular schools in the US (and a few abroad) and then break down the patterns to help you brainstorm topics and plan how to approach multiple essays efficiently. After reading this guide, you'll be able to strategize which essays you'll write for which colleges. Feature image: Mayr/Flickr Why Do Colleges Ask For an Essay? The short answer: the essay gives admissions committees a sense of your personality beyond the statistics on the rest of your application.The essay is your chance to show the committee your unique perspectiveand impress them with your maturity and insight. College application essay promptsarewritten with this goal in mind. Admissions officers want to give you the chance to share your interests, aspirations, and views on the world, so most prompts ask about how yourexperiences have shaped you or what you're excited about studying or doing in college. I've collecteda ton of examples below and provided some analysis to help you begin planning and crafting your own essays. Keep in mind that the personal statement alone wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be enough to get you in- your grades and test scores are still the most important factors in your application. That being said, a stellar essaycan help bring a borderline applicantover the top or give an excellent but not extraordinary student the opportunity tostand out in a competitive applicant pool. As such, the essay tends to matter most for very competitive schools. Non-competitive schools generally donÃ¢â¬â¢t ask you to submit an essay. Complete List of College Essay Prompts This list collectsthe 2018 college essay prompts formajor state universities, top-50 schools, and other popular schools. They're divided by region, with all optional essays listed at the end. I left off the Common App supplements, as those often require a substantiallydifferent approach. I also stuck tofour-year schools, meaning Ididn't includespecial two-year programs, such as Deep Springs College or Miami Dade CollegeÃ¢â¬â¢s Honors Program (both of which require essays). Finally, note that these prompts are for freshman applicants, so the requirements might be different for transfer students. General Applications There are three general applicationsyou can use to apply to many different schools at once: Common Application Universal College Application Coalition Application Each application has its own personal statement requirement. Some schools will ask for additional supplemental essays. Many more schools accept the Common App than they do the UCAor Coalition Application, though some will accept more than one of theseapplications. Common Application For the Common App essay, you pick one of the prompts and write 250-650 words about it. Here are the prompts for the 2018-19 school year: Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. The lessons we take fromobstacles we encountercan be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced achallenge, setback, or failure.How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience? Reflect on a time when youquestionedor challenged a belief or idea. What prompted yourthinking? Whatwas the outcome? Describe a problem youÃ¢â¬â¢ve solved or a problem youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to solve. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma- anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution. Discuss an accomplishment, event, orrealizationthatsparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others. Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more? Share an essay on any topic of your choice. It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. Universal College Application The UCA essay prompt is completely open ended and has a 650-word limit. Here is the 2018-19 prompt: Please write an essay that demonstrates your ability to develop and communicate your thoughts. Some ideas include: a person you admire; a life-changing experience; or your viewpoint on a particular current event. Coalition Application For the Coalition Application, you'll pick one of five prompts listed below. While there is no hard word limit, the range guidelines are 500-550 words. Here are the prompts for 2017-19: Tell a story from your life, describing an experience that either demonstrates your character or helped to shape it. Describe a time when you made a meaningful contribution to others in which the greater good was your focus. Discuss the challenges and rewards of making your contribution. Has there been a time when youÃ¢â¬â¢ve had a long-cherished or accepted belief challenged? How did you respond? How did the challenge affect your beliefs? What is the hardest part of being a teenager now? WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the best part? What advice would you give a younger sibling or friend (assuming they would listen to you)? Submit anessayon a topic of your choice. Northeast/Mid-Atlantic The Great Dome at MIT Georgetown University Georgetown asks applicants to writeone short essay (about half a single-spaced page)and two longer essays(approximately one single-spaced page each).Each applicant must respond to the first two prompts and can choose among the other four based on the specific program she's interested in. Short Essay:Briefly (approximately one-half page, single-spaced) discuss the significance to you of the school or summer activity in which youhave been most involved. All Applicants: As Georgetown is a diverse community, the Admissions Committee would like to know more about you in yourown words. Please submit a brief essay, either personal or creative, which you feel best describes you. Applicants to Georgetown College: What does it mean to you to be educated? How might Georgetown College help you achievethis aim? (Applicants to the Sciences and Mathematics or the Faculty of Languages and Linguistics should address their chosencourse of study). Applicants to the School of Nursing Health Studies: Describe the factors that have influenced your interest in studyinghealthcare. Please specifically address your intended major (Global Health, Health Care Management Policy, Human Science,orNursing). Applicants to the Walsh School of Foreign Service: Briefly discuss a current global issue, indicating why you consider itimportant and what you suggest should be done to deal with it. Applicants to the McDonough School of Business: The McDonough School of Business is a national and global leader inproviding graduates with essential ethical, analytical, financial and global perspectives. Please discuss your motivations for studying business at Georgetown. Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT doesn't ask for a single personal statement but rather asks applicants torespond to a series of questions with just aparagraph or two. We know you lead a busy life, full of activities, many of which are required of you. Tell us about something you do simply for the pleasure of it. (100 words or fewer) Although you may not yet know what you want to major in, which department or program at MIT appeals to you and why? (100 words or fewer) At MIT, we bring people together to better the lives of others. MIT students work to improve their communities in different ways, from tackling the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest challenges to being a good friend. Describe one way in which you have contributed to your community, whether in your family, the classroom, your neighborhood, etc. (200-250 words) Describe the world you come from; for example, your family, clubs, school, community, city, or town. How has that world shaped your dreams and aspirations? (200-250 words) Tell us about the most significant challenge you've faced or something important that didn't go according to plan. How did you manage the situation? (200-250 words) Midwest University of Wisconsin, Madison Indiana University Bloomington IU asks for 200-400 words on your plans and interests. Describe your academic and career plans and any special interest (for example, undergraduate research, academic interests, leadership opportunities, etc.) that you are eager to pursue as an undergraduate at Indiana University. Also, if you encountered any unusual circumstances, challenges, or obstacles in pursuit of your education, share those experiences and how you overcame them. (200-400 words) This essay may be used in scholarship consideration. University of Illinois The University of Illinois asks for two essays only if you have selected a second-choice major other than what's noted on your application. Both responses should be 300-400 words. Explain your interest in the major you selected and describe how you have recently explored or developed this interest inside and/or outside the classroom. You may also explain how this major relates to your future career goals. If you're applying to theDivision of General Studies, explain your academic interests and strengths or your future career goals. You may include any majors or areas of study you're currentlyconsidering. If you select a second-choice major other than the Division of General Studies on your application, write a second essay explaining your interest in this major, too. University of WisconsinÃ¢â¬âMadison All applicants must complete two essays for UWÃ¢â¬âMadison. Theessays should be 300-500 words each (with a max of 650 words) and may be used for scholarship and campus program review.For the first essay, you may also use any of the Common Application prompts if you apply through the Common Application. Tell us about your academic and personal achievements. What have you learned from your success and/or challenges, and how will this influence you as you pursue your college education? Tell us why you would like to attend the University of WisconsinÃ¢â¬âMadison. In addition, please include why you are interested in studying the major(s) you have selected. If you selected undecided please describe your areas of possible academic interest. Want to write the perfect college application essay? Get professional help from PrepScholar. Your dedicated PrepScholar Admissions counselor will craft your perfect college essay, from the ground up. We'll learn your background and interests, brainstorm essay topics, and walk you through the essay drafting process, step-by-step. At the end, you'll have a unique essay that you'll proudly submit to your top choice colleges. Don't leave your college application to chance. Find out more about PrepScholar Admissions now: South Kyle Field at Texas AM (Ed Schipul/Flickr) ApplyTexas The ApplyTexas application is used by all Texas public universitiesand some private colleges. There are four ApplyTexas essay prompts. Which ones you need to respond to will depend on where you're applying.UT Austin, for example, requires applicants to submit one essay responding to Topic A and another on a topic of their choice. While there's no set word limit, the online application will cut off eachessay at 120 lines (~1000 words). Topic A: What was the environment in which you were raised? Describe your family, home, neighborhood, or community, and explain how it has shaped you as a person. Topic B: Most students have an identity, an interest, or a talent that defines them in an essential way. Tell us about yourself. Topic C: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve got a ticket in your hand Ã¢â¬â Where will you go? What will you do? What will happen when you get there? Topic D: Please Note: The essay in this section is specific to certain college majors and is not required by all colleges/universities that accept the Apply Texas Application. If you are not applying for a major in Architecture, Art, Art History, Design, Studio Art, Visual Art Studies/Art Education, you are not required to write this essay. Personal interaction with objects, images and spaces can be so powerful as to change the way one thinks about particular issues or topics. For your intended area of study (architecture, art history, design, studio art, visual art studies/art education), describe an experience where instruction in that area or your personal interaction with an object, image or space effected this type of change in your thinking. What did you do to act upon your new thinking and what have you done to prepare yourself for further study in this area? University of Georgia For UGA, applicants mustwrite two essays of 200-300 words each. One prompt is required. You may choose your other essay from among four options. Required: The college admissions process can create anxiety. In an attempt to make it less stressful, please tell us an interesting or amusing story about yourself from your high school years that you have not already shared in your application. Choose One: UGAÃ¢â¬â¢s 2017 Commencement speaker Ernie Johnson (Class of Ã¢â¬â¢79) told a story from his youth about what he refers to as blackberry moments. He has described these asÃ¢â¬Å"the sweet moments that are right there to be had but weÃ¢â¬â¢re just too focused on what weÃ¢â¬â¢re doing Ã¢â¬ ¦ and we see things that are right there within our reach and we neglect them.Blackberry moments can be anything that makes somebody elseÃ¢â¬â¢s day, that makes your day, that are just sweet moments that you always remember.Ã¢â¬ Tell us about one of your Ã¢â¬Å"blackberry momentsÃ¢â¬ from the past five years. Creativity is found in many forms including artistic avenues, intellectual pursuits, social interactions, innovative solutions, et cetera. Tell us how you express your creativity. Tell a story from your life, describing an experience that either demonstrates your character or helped to shape it. Describe a problem, possibly related to your area of study, which you would like to solve. Explain its importance to you and what actions you would take to solve this issue. West The Campanile at UC Berkeley University of California Students applying to the UC system must respond to four out of eightshort personal insight questions.The maximum word count for each response is 350 words. Describe an example of your leadership experience in which you have positively influenced others, helped resolve disputes or contributed to group efforts over time. Every person has a creative side, and it can be expressed in many ways: problem solving, original and innovative thinking, and artistically, to name a few. Describe how you express your creative side. What would you say is your greatest talent or skill? How have you developed and demonstrated that talent over time? Describe how you have taken advantage of a significant educational opportunity or worked to overcome an educational barrier you have faced. Describe the most significant challenge you have faced and the steps you have taken to overcome this challenge. How has this challenge affected your academic achievement? Think about an academic subject that inspires you. Describe how you have furthered this interest inside and/or outside of the classroom. What have you done to make your school or your community a better place? Beyond what has already been shared in your application, what do you believe makes you stand out as a strong candidate for admissions to the University of California? University of Oregon The UO is interested in learning more about you. Write an essay of 650 words or less that shares information that we cannot find elsewhere on your application. Any topic you choose is welcome. Some ideas you might consider include your future ambitions and goals, a special talent, extracurricular activity, or unusual interest that sets you apart from your peers, or a significant experience that influenced your life. If you are applying to the UO's Robert D. Clark Honors College, feel free to resubmit your honors college application essay. University of Washington As part of theCoalition for Access, Affordability, and Success, UW will accept an essay on any of the five Coalition prompts. This essay will ideally be around 300-400 words long.UW also requiresan answer to a short-response question, with a maximum of 300 words: Our families and communities often define us and our individual worlds. Community might refer to your cultural group, extended family, religious group, neighborhood or school, sports team or club, co-workers, etc. Describe the world you come from and how you, as a product of it, might add to the diversity of the University of Washington. International Generally speaking, international schools are less likely to ask for an essay, since admission tends to be heavily focused on grades and test results. However, a few popular international schools do ask for a personal statement as part of their application. Universities and Colleges Admissions Service(UK Schools) UCAS is a general application for UK schools (similar to the Common App in the US). There's no specific prompt for the personal statement- instead, applicants are required to write an essay describing what they want to study, why they want to study it, and what they bring to the table. There is a 4,000-character limit. University of British Columbia UBC asks applicants to fill out a personal profile consisting of five to seven short-answer questions that vary depending on the program you're applying to. Answers should be 50-200 words. While UBC doesn't provide specific questions for your program until you start an application, they do advise that you think about the following questions as you prepare: What are the qualities you think make for a successful university student? How have you demonstrated such qualities in the past? Think about your first-choice UBC degree. What kinds of activities, accomplishments, and insights- learned in or outside of the classroom- do you think would be relevant to this degree? Think about your accomplishments and activities. What have you learned from these experiences? When have you taken on a leadership role? What do you excel in at school or outside of school?What do you enjoy learning in school? Or what do you enjoy doing outside of school that has influenced what you want to learn? Think about the role others have played in your accomplishments and experiences. Think about how your favourite teacher would describe you. Why would your teacher describe you this way? Be specific. Try to incorporate this information into your responses. Think about two or three adjectives that best describe you. For each, provide some evidence of why they describe. Be specific. Try to incorporate this information into your responses. Think about the challenges that you have had to overcome in your life. What have those experiences taught you about yourself and about your community? Want to write the perfect college application essay? Get professional help from PrepScholar. Your dedicated PrepScholar Admissions counselor will craft your perfect college essay, from the ground up. We'll learn your background and interests, brainstorm essay topics, and walk you through the essay drafting process, step-by-step. At the end, you'll have a unique essay that you'll proudly submit to your top choice colleges. Don't leave your college application to chance. Find out more about PrepScholar Admissions now: University of Cambridge Optional Essays Some schools don't require an essay from all applicants but do recommend or require an essay for certain programs. I've listed a selection of those prompts below. Arizona State University Students applying to the Barrett Honors College at ASU must submit two essays of up to 300 words each on the following topics: How will your honors educational experience enrich you, both in relation to your chosen field of study and in relation to your broader education? How will you and your experiences contribute to the Barrett educational and residential community? City University of New York Applicants to MacaulayHonors College mustrespond to one of two "Personal Reflection" prompts and one of two "Social Issues" prompts. The maximum length is 500 words per response. Personal Reflection: Describe an experience that either demonstrates your character or helped to shape it. Reflecting on your experience and aspirations, discuss how your life will differ from your parents' lives. Provide concrete evidence to illustrate your position. Social Issues: Pick a story of local, national, or international importance from the front page of any newspaper. Identify your source and give the date the article appeared. Then use your sense of humor, sense of outrage, sense of justice- or just plain good sense- to explain why the story engages your attention. If someone gave you a $50 million grant, how would you use it to make New York City a better place? Florida International University Only applicants who don't meet the criteria for automatic admissions and whose applications undergo holistic review will need to submit a 500-word essay: Qualities such as motivation, drive, courage, perseverance, resolve and strength of character play an important role in students' ability to succeed at FIU and in life. Write a 500-word (one-page, single spaced) essay explaining which of these measures makes you a good candidate for admission to FIU and what strategies you will use to ensure your success in and out of the classroom. The Ohio State University Applicants to the University Honors program or the Ohio State Scholars program must respond to the following prompt: To what fictional character do you most relate, and why? You may select a character from animation, art, film, literature, television, theater or any other medium. Ohio University For theOhio University application, students who've been out of a school for more thana year must submit an essay explaining what they've done in their time off from school. If there is a period of three months or longer that you have not been enrolled in a high school, college, or university, please provide a statement documenting your activities for that period. Examples include language study, vacation, work experience, family responsibilities. Additionally, applicants to the journalism schoolare encouraged to write a 250- to 500-word essay "detailing how they want to help shape the future of journalism, advertising, or public relations." For all other applicants, submitting an essay here is optional. Finally, those interested inOhio University's Cutler Scholars Program must answer the following essay prompt (max 250 words): Reflect on a service activity or other efforts you've undertaken to contribute to your community or communities. Your actions might involve individual service, a group project, or substantial activities to support your family, such as employment or caring for a sick relative. What did you learn about yourself and your community? What did you learn about how society functions more generally? Ohio University in the 1970s (Sent From the Past/Flickr) Pennsylvania State University Penn State allows applicants to complete the two following optional essays, each withalimit of 500 words: Please use this space to discuss your activities (other than academic work) during the last several years (for example: school organizations, jobs, athletics, the arts, community service, religious groups, or other individual interests). Please tell us something about yourself, your experiences, or activities that you believe would reflect positively on your ability to succeed at Penn State. This is your opportunity to tell us something about yourself that is not already reflected in your application or academic records. Additionally, applicants to the Schreyer Honors College must answer the following three essay prompts. There are no word count or formatting requirements. There are 27 amendments to the Constitution of the United States. What should be the 28th? Are China and India developing countries? Why or why not? The Seven Wonders of the World is a well-known list highlighting spectacular natural phenomena or human-made structures. Please describe some of the Seven Wonders ofyourworld: They could include people, places, events, or things that have significantly affected who you are. Lastly, if you took any time off before starting college, you'll need to explain what you did during this time and whyin the area of the application titled "Educational Gap Statement." University of Arizona Applicants to UA who do not meet the assured admission criteria will go through the comprehensive review process, which allows for an optional personal statement: The inclusion of anoptionalshort answer, personal narrative or statement to the UA application gives you the opportunity to include unique life experiences and personal achievements in your application University of Central Florida The essays for UCF are optional but recommended. Applicants are asked to pick two of the prompts and compose responses of no more than 500 words (or 7,000 characters) each. If there has been some obstacle or bump in the road in your academic or personal life, please explain the circumstances. How has your family history, culture, or environment influenced who you are? Why did you choose to apply to UCF? What qualities or unique characteristics do you possess that will allow you to contribute to the UCF community? University of Kansas Applicants to KU's honors program must answer one of the following three essay promptsin 500 words or fewer: Give us your top five. Elaborate Consider a time when you strongly held a position, then changed your mind. How did you come to your original stance and how did it change? The University of Kansas cultivates visionaries who contribute to local and global communities. Discuss your passion and why itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to you Applicants may also submit an "Extenuating Circumstances Statement." The word limit for this response is 150 words. Is there additional information about yourself, your family, your background, or any adversity (e.g. financial hardship, illness, etc.) you would like us to take into consideration while reviewing your application? University of Nebraska, Lincoln UNL doesn't require applicants to submit an essay, but you will need to write one to be considered for scholarships. There is a 500-word limit. Tell us about the experiences that have shaped you as person- the community circumstances youÃ¢â¬â¢ve overcome, your leadership experiences, your career goals, examples of your commitment to help under-served communities and experiences youÃ¢â¬â¢ve had with the global community. University of Utah Applicants to the Honors College must complete two essays. The first has a limit of 500 words, and the second has a limit of just 50 words: In 500 words: Keeping in mind that there are many ways to think about Ã¢â¬Å"justiceÃ¢â¬ and a Ã¢â¬Å"just societyÃ¢â¬ , what would YOU personally require of a society in order for YOU to consider it Ã¢â¬Å"justÃ¢â¬ ? It might be helpful to explain what you believe is Ã¢â¬Å"justÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"justiceÃ¢â¬ but please donÃ¢â¬â¢t incorporate a dictionary definition in your essay.Take a little risk, and have fun. In 50 words:... Please give us a hint about what makes you, YOU: a personality quirk, an unexpected interest, an unusual hobby or pursuit, how your earned your nickname, your most embarrassing moment, your wildest dream, the title of your autobiography, why your friends think youÃ¢â¬â¢re funny, what youÃ¢â¬â¢re doing to get into the Guinness Book of Records, your latest invention? This parrot has questions. Do you have answers? (Matthias Ripp/Flickr) Want to write the perfect college application essay? Get professional help from PrepScholar. Your dedicated PrepScholar Admissions counselor will craft your perfect college essay, from the ground up. We'll learn your background and interests, brainstorm essay topics, and walk you through the essay drafting process, step-by-step. At the end, you'll have a unique essay that you'll proudly submit to your top choice colleges. Don't leave your college application to chance. Find out more about PrepScholar Admissions now: The 3 Main Types of College Essay Questions As you can see above, a few schools ask simply, Ã¢â¬Å"Tell us something about yourself,Ã¢â¬ but most have a more specific prompt. Still, many questionsare pretty similar to each other and can be grouped intothree general types. In this section, we'll break down each type of college essay question to see why colleges ask about it and how you can respond effectively. Type 1: QuestionsAbout a Meaningful Experience This type of college essay question is the most common. The exact focus of these prompts can vary quite a bit,but they all ask you to reflect on an important experience. Some questions specify atype of experience whereas others don't, simply opting to have applicants write about whatever matters to them. There are three basic sub-types that you'll see when dealing with these prompts. Let's look at an example of each. #1: Overcoming a Challenge These prompts ask about how you dealt with a particular challenge or solved a problem. Below is a typical example of this question type from the MITapplication: Tell us about the most significant challenge you've faced or something important that didn't go according to plan. How did you manage the situation? To address a question like this, you need a topic that has real stakes- that is, something that you genuinely struggled with.Even though it can seem as though you should only discusspositive experiences and feelings in your college essay (you want to impress your readers with how awesome you are!), unwavering positivity actually hurts your essaybecause it makes you seem fake. Instead, be honest: if you're writing about a negative experience, acknowledge that it was unpleasant or hard and explain why.Doing so will just make your overcoming it that much more impressive. #2: Engaging WithDiversity Questions about diversity ask how you interact with those who are different from you. See an example below from the Common Application: Reflect on a time when youquestionedor challenged a belief or idea. What prompted yourthinking? Whatwas the outcome? When approaching this type of question, you need to showthat you're thoughtful about new ideas and perspectives.Colleges are full of students from all kinds of backgrounds, and admissions officers want to know that you'll be accepting of the diversity of other students, even if you don't necessarily agree with them. Also, make sure to pick aspecific instance to focus on. Writing a general essay about how you accept others won't impress admissions officers- you needto show them an example of a time that you did so. #3: Growing Up Finally, this type of prompt asks about a transitional experience or rite of passage that made you feel like an adult. I've reprinted another example from the Common App: Discuss an accomplishment, event, orrealizationthatsparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others. For these types of prompts, you want to show personal growth. Explain to the reader not just who you are but also how you've changed. (Really, this is a good idea no matter which prompt you're addressing!) College can be challenging, soadmissions officers want to know that you have the maturity to deal with (likely) living on your own, managing your own life, and planning for your future. Regardless of the exact prompt, the key to this type of college essay is to show what youÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned from the experience.Admissions officersdon't care that much about what happened to you- they care about what you think and feel about that event. That's what will give them a sense of who you are and what kind of college student you'll make. How have you changed between graduating from kindergarten and graduating from high school? Type 2: Questions About How You Would Fit Into the Community Examples:UWÃ¢â¬âMadison, FIU, UCF When admissions committees evaluate applicants, they consider how a student will contributeto the college as a whole. These college essay questions ask you to explain what you would bring to the collegeÃ¢â¬â¢s community and how you'd fit in with its values. Here is an example fromUWÃ¢â¬âMadison: Tell us why you would like to attend the University of WisconsinÃ¢â¬âMadison. In addition, please include why you are interested in studying the major(s) you have selected. If you selected undecided please describe your areas of possible academic interest. To address this type of prompt, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to give specific examples of how you embody the traits theyÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for or what benefits youÃ¢â¬â¢d provide to the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s community. Some prompts will ask youto addressmore specific ideas about the school than others, but it's always a good idea to touch onthe individual school's values or philosophy. Balancing talking about your experiences and traits with describing what excites you about the school can be tricky, but it's vital that you touch on both. If you don't talk about yourself, you're missing your chance to give the admissions committee a sense of who you are and how you would fit in to their community. And if you don't discuss the school itself, you risk coming off as uninterested. So make sure to do both! Type 3: Questions About Your Goals Examples:MIT 2,University of Illinois,ApplyTexas C These college essay questions ask about your professional, personal, or academic goals and how youÃ¢â¬â¢ll pursue them.They also often ask you to outline how youÃ¢â¬â¢ve worked toward these goals so far. Take a look at an example from the University of Illinois application: Explain your interest in the major you selected and describe how you have recently explored or developed this interest inside and/or outside the classroom. You may also explain how this major relates to your future career goals. If you're applying to theDivision of General Studies, explain your academic interests and strengths or your future career goals. You may include any majors or areas of study you're currentlyconsidering. When addressingthis type of question, you'll want to prove to admissions officers that youÃ¢â¬â¢re thoughtful about your future and excited about the opportunities college provides.Colleges want to admit students who will be successful, and a big part of finding success is having the drive to work toward it. As always, remember to use specific examples to illustrate your point.What relevant experiences have you had or interests have you pursued? What made you think this subject or career would be a good fit for you? Are there related classes or activities you're excited to participate in at the school? The more specific you can be in addressingthese questions, the stronger your essay will be. Of course, these three types of questions don't cover every essay prompt, and some questions will be more unusual (especially those for supplemental essays). Nonetheless, you should analyze any prompts you encounter in the same way. Ask yourself why the college is asking that question and what admissions officers are hoping to see- not in terms of specific topics but in terms of general trends and traits. Understanding what admissions officers are hoping to get out of your essay will help you pick a great topic that'll help you exhibit your unique personality and perspective in the most effective way possible. How to Plan Your College Essay Writing Now that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen the range of questions you might be asked to answer for your college apps, letÃ¢â¬â¢s discuss how you can plan your college essay writing process most efficiently. Make a Chart of All the Essays You Need to Write Depending on how many schoolsyou're applying to and what their requirements are, you might have to respond to10 or more college essay prompts. Therefore,you'll want to make sure that you're organized about what needs to get done. I recommend creating a chart with the school, its deadline, and its essay's word count in one column, and theprompt(s) in the other. Then, prioritize your essays by deadline and preference. In other words, focus first on essays for the schools with the earliest deadlines and the ones youÃ¢â¬â¢re mostexcited about. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll also want to consider whether you truly need to write a different essay for each school. If the prompts are similar enough, you might be able to reuse essays for more than one college. I'll go over how to make these calls in more depth below. When Writing Multiple Essays for OneSchool, Use DifferentTopics You probably noticed that many of the schools listed above ask for more than one essay. When completing one of these applications, make sure your essays arenÃ¢â¬â¢t repetitive.You want to take the opportunity to give admissions officers as fleshed out a sense of who you are as you can,so pick topics that show different sides of your personality. For example, letÃ¢â¬â¢s consider a student whoÃ¢â¬â¢s hoping to become an engineer. If she writes her first essay about competing in a science fair, sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to focus on something slightly different for her second essay- perhaps an unexpected interest, such as figure skating, or a time that she used her scientific skills to solve an unscientific problem. Be Careful About Reusing Essays A common question students have is whetheryou can just write one essay and submit it to every school. The answer is, unfortunately, no. As you can see,college essay questionsdiffer enough that there's no way you could use the same essay for every single one (not to mention the fact that many schools require two or more essays anyway!). However, it doessometimeswork to reusean essay for more than one school. The key is that the prompts have to be asking about basically the same type of thing. For example, you could use the same essay for two prompts that both ask about a time you solved a problem, but you probably wouldn't want to use the same essay for one prompt that asks about a problem you solved and one that asks about a time you interacted with someone different from yourself. You can also reuse an essay bysubmitting an essay originally written for a specific prompt for a more general prompt as well.For example, you couldsubmit your ApplyTexas topic B app (the one that's about overcoming a specific obstacle) for the Coalition essay prompt 1 (the one about a meaningful story from your life and what you learned). In that case, you might want to tweak the essay slightly to address the question of what you learned more explicitly, but you could likely use the same personal statement with minimal changes. The other reason thisinstance of essay recycling works is because the ApplyTexasand Coalition applications have compatibleword limits.In general, you can't reuse a 600-word essay for a prompt with a 250-word limit. Why? Because by the time you've cut out that many words, you'll usually be left with something that either doesn't make much sense or that doesn't show much about you (since you've only left enoughof the story to explainwhat happened). Although, technically, you could use a short essay (200-300 words) for an application with a higher word limit (say, 500-650 words), I strongly advise against doing this. If you have the space to tell a more in-depth story and explain your perspective and feelings in more detail, you should take it. Reusing a much shorter essay out of laziness is a waste of an important opportunity to impress the admissions committee.(You can, however, write a longer essay on the same topic.) Ultimately, whether you can use a recycled essay for a given prompt willdepend on the specific prompts involved and your chosen topic. However, I've outlined some general guidelines below. Essays About Experiences Arethe Most Easily TransferredBetween Schools ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a reason the Common App promptsare all type 1: Because they ask about important experiences, these prompts are much more about you than they are about the school. As such, itÃ¢â¬â¢s much easier to use them for more than one school. That being said, as I described above, if the prompts are different sub-types or are otherwise clearly distinct from each other, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll still need to write unique essays. Essays About a Specific School Generally CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Be Recycled If a prompt asks about why youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in a specific school or how you'd fit in, don't try to use it for more than one school. Admissions officers want to see that you're excited about their school and will bring something interesting or special to their community. It's impossible to show them this if you can't be bothered to write a unique essay for their application. Take the time to think about what appeals to you about the specific school or how you relate to its core values. Essays About Your Goals or Interests Might Need to Be Customized to Each School For questions that ask about your future, you might be able to keep the same basic structure- assuming youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in studying the same subject- and simply tweak the section about your plans for the future to reflect eachschool's specific programs or activities. However, donÃ¢â¬â¢t lie to avoid having to write a new essay. If one schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s music program interests you while another schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s architecture program does, write a unique essay for each. How to Write a College Essay That Works: 3 Key Tips There's one key takeaway from looking at the many prompts above: colleges are looking for your essay to tell them something about you.This idea should be your guiding principle as you write and edit your essay. I've summarized our top three college essay writingtipsbelow, but for a more in-depth take on the writing process, check out our step-by-step guide to writing a great college essay. #1: Pick a Topic You're Excited About A great essay requires a great topic, and a great topic is one that you really want to write about.Remember that admissions officers want to get to know you: you'll have to be honest about your interests and your perspectives if you want to impress them. For more guidance on picking a great topic, check out our guides to brainstorming college essay ideasand finding the besttopic for you. #2: Focus On Specific Details No matter how great your topic, your essay won't be compelling without detailed descriptions that put the reader in your shoes and let them see the world from your perspective. Details are what make an essay stand out because they're unique to you. For example, alot of people might have volunteered with Habitat for Humanity, but only one could have stood outside in a pink hat listening to her high school history teacher drone on about the different types of screws for 25 minutes.In short, don't settle for telling readers what you did- show them with specific details. You also need to explain howthe experience affected you and/or whyyour topic is important to you. Students often get so wrapped up in telling astory that they forget to show why it matters, but your feelings arethe most important part of your essay. This aspectof the essay should also include plenty ofdetails. Otherwise, it's easy to fall into clichÃ ©s that bog down your storytelling. #3: Edit Carefully As you embark upon the college essay writing process, keep in mind thefamous Ernest Hemingway quote: "The only kind of writing is rewriting." It might be extremely tempting to just write a draft and call it a day, but revising is a vital step in crafting an engaging essay. Once you write a first draft, put it in a drawer for a week. Taking some time away from it will allow you to come back to it with fresh eyes. Then, try to read your essay from the perspective of someone who knows nothing about you.Would they be able to understand the story? Do you explain clearly what you learned? Does yourintro grab the reader's attention? It can also be helpful to ask someone you trust, such as a parent, teacher, or peer, to read your essay and give you feedback. Really listen to what they say and think about how you can improve your writing. Finally, try reading your essay aloud. This will help you catch any weird or awkward phrasings. What's Next? If you're struggling with how to approach your personal statement, consider looking at some college essay examples. The essay is just one part of the college application process. Check out our guide to applying to college for a step-by-step breakdown of what you'll need to do. Finally, if you're planning to take the SAT or ACT, consider taking a look at our expert test-prep guides for some helpful advice on whatever you might be struggling with. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: